PD-1 suppresses TCR-CD8 cooperativity during T-cell antigen recognition.
Author: Kaitao Li
Despite the clinical success of blocking its interactions, how PD-1 inhibits T-cell activation is incompletely understood, as exemplified by its potency far exceeding what might be predicted from its affinity for PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1). This may be partially attributed to PD-1's targeting the proximal signaling of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulatory receptor CD28 via activating Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatases (SHPs). Here, we report PD-1 signaling regulates the initial TCR antigen recognition manifested in a smaller spreading area, fewer molecular bonds formed, and shorter bond lifetime of T cell interaction with peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) in the presence than absence of PD-L1 in a manner dependent on SHPs and Leukocyte C-terminal Src kinase. Our results identify a PD-1 inhibitory mechanism that disrupts the cooperative TCR-pMHC-CD8 trimolecular interaction, which prevents CD8 from augmenting antigen recognition, explaining PD-1's potent inhibitory function and its value as a target for clinical intervention.