Quantifying the effects of molecular orientation and length on two-dimensional receptor-ligand binding kinetics.
Author: Jun Huang
Journal:The Journal of biological chemistry
Surface presentation of adhesion receptors influences cell adhesion, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. We used a micropipette adhesion frequency assay to quantify how the molecular orientation and length of adhesion receptors on the cell membrane affected two-dimensional kinetic rates of interactions with surface ligands. Interactions of P-selectin, E-selectin, and CD16A with their respective ligands or antibody were used to demonstrate such effects. Randomizing the orientation of the adhesion receptor or lowering its ligand- and antibody-binding domain above the cell membrane lowered two-dimensional affinities of the molecular interactions by reducing the forward rates but not the reverse rates. In contrast, the soluble antibody bound with similar three-dimensional affinities to cell-bound P-selectin constructs regardless of their orientation and length. These results demonstrate that the orientation and length of an adhesion receptor influences its rate of encountering and binding a surface ligand but does not subsequently affect the stability of binding.